1. Melyek a klasszikus török gazel főbb jellemzői? (Metrum, rímképlet, hosszúság)

2. Hagy nevezik a klasszikus gazel alapegységét?

3. Mi a makta és a matla?

  1. A klasszikus török költészet legkedveltebb műfaja. Gazelt minden valami magára adó költőnek illett írnia. A gazel, mely eredetileg a kaszídából fejlődött ki, legkevesebb négy, legfeljebb tizenöt párversből álló versforma. Az első párverset (matla’) páros rím zárja, az ezt követő párversek második fél sora hordozza a költemény egészén átvonuló rímet. A gazel rímképlete tehát aa   ba   ca da, stb. A gazel utolsó párverse, melyben megjelenik a szerző költői neve (tahallusz), a makta’. A gazel legszebb párversét sáhbejtnek, azaz királyi párversnek nevezik. A gazel témája és visszatérő motívuma a szerelem, a kedves – aki lehet evilági, de lehet az Örök Igazság is – dícsérete és a borivás. Mértéke szabadon választott, de nem sérülhet.

4. Ki vagy kik a klasszikus török gazel főbb szereplői? A kedves, általában nő, és a szerelmes, vagyis a költő, aki mindig férfi.

5. Mit csinál, hogyan jelenik meg a gazelben a szerelmes? Szenved.

The ghazal (Arabic/Persian/Urdu: غزل; Hindi: ग़ज़ल; Punjabi: ਗ਼ਜ਼ਲ, غزل; Turkish: gazel) is a poetic form  onsisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain. Each line must share the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th century pre-Islamic Arabic verse. It is derived from the Arabian panegyric qasida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarcan sonnet. In its style and content it is a genre which has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world. The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century under the influence of the new Islamic Sultanate courts and Sufi mystics. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Persian poetry and Urdu poetry, today, it is found in the poetry of many languages. Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi (13th century) and Hafez (14th century), the Azeri poet Fuzuli (16th century), as well as Mirza Ghalib (1797–1869) and Muhammad Iqbal (1877–1938), who both wrote ghazals in Persian and Urdu. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), the ghazal became very popular in Germany in the 19th century, and the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert (1788–1866) and August von Platen (1796–1835). The Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of “real ghazals in English”. In some ghazals the poet’s name is featured somewhere in the last verse.

* A ghazal is composed of couplets, five or more.

* The second line of each couplet (or sher) in a ghazal usually ends with the repetition of a refrain of one or a few words, known as a radif (pronounced Radeef), preceded by a rhyme known as the qaafiyaa. In Arabic, Persian and Turkic the couplet is termed a bayt and the line within the bayt is called a misra. In the first couplet, which introduces the theme, both lines end in the rhyme and refrain so that the ghazal’s rhyme scheme is AA BA CA etc

* There can be no enjambement across the couplets in a strict ghazal; each couplet must be a complete sentence (or several sentences) in itself.

* All the couplets, and each line of each couplet, must share the same meter.

* Ghazal is simply the name of a form, and is not language-specific. Ghazals also exist, for example in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Turkish, Kashmiri, Kurdish and even Gujarati.

* In South Asian languages some ghazals do not have any radif. This is, however, rare. Such ghazals are called “ġair-muraddaf” ghazal. The pre-Islamic Arabian qasida was in monorrhyme; like the rest of the qasida the ghazal itself did not have a radif.

* Although every sher may be an independent poem in itself, it is possible for all the shers to be on the same theme or even have continuity of thought. This is called a musalsal ghazal, or “continuous ghazal”. The ghazal “chupke chupke raat din aasUU bahaanaa yaad hai” is a famous example of a musalsal ghazal.

* In modern Urdu poetry, there are a few ghazals which do not follow the restriction that the same beher must be used in both the lines of a sher. But even in these ghazals, qaafiyaa and, usually, radif are present.

* By placing his or her takhallus in the final sher or maqtaa the poet traditionally attempted to secure credit for his or her work. Poets often made elegant use of their takhallus in the maqta. However, some modern ghazals do not have a maqtaa. The name of the poet shaayar is sometimes placed in the last sher of the ghazal. The ghazal not only has a specific form, but traditionally deals with just one subject: Love. And not any kind of love, but specifically, an illicit and unattainable love. The subcontinental ghazals have an influence of Islamic Mysticism and the subject of love can usually be interpreted for a higher being or for a mortal beloved. The love is always viewed as something that will complete a human being, and if attained will lift him or her into the ranks of the wise, or will bring satisfaction to the soul of the poet. Traditional ghazal love may or may not have an explicit element of sexual desire in it, and the love may be spiritual. The love may be directed to a man or a woman. The ghazal is always written from the point of view of the unrequited lover whose beloved is portrayed as unattainable. Most often either the beloved does not return the poet’s love or returns it without sincerity, or else the societal circumstances do not allow it. The lover is aware and resigned to this fate but continues loving nonetheless; the lyrical impetus of the poem derives from this tension. Representations of the lover’s powerlessness to resist his feelings often include lyrically exaggerated violence. The beloved’s power to captivate the speaker may be represented in extended metaphors about the “arrows of his eyes”, or by referring to the beloved as an assassin or a killer.


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